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För det första ska det vara seriöst och ha ett bra rykte bland spelare. Politically she had no interest in England beyond the sentimental one that England once belonged to Denmark and might some day be regained.
Furthermore, England was not a neces- sary market for Danish trade. The rich, rolling plains of Denmark, relieved of their congestion by the viking migrations, were self-supporting in most of the necessities of life, and for the importation of articles of luxury, as well as the export of her own horses and fish, Denmark had the Continent at her door, and overland routes led from Aalborg in the north of Jutland south to Rome and southeast to Paris.
For Norway, on the other hand, England was the nearest door. Norway's colonies in the British Isles extended from the Shethuids in the north, through the Orimeys and the counties of Caithness and Sutherland, down the west coast of Scotland to the Isle of Man; in Ireland Dublin was the capital of a Norwegian kingdom; and far to the north and west were dependencies in the Faeroes and the republics of Iceland and Greenland.
And, quite independently of her colonies, the trade of Norway with England direct was per- haps the closest bond of all between the two coun- tries.
The austerity of Norway's mountains and fjords compelled her people to fare abroad in quest of the abundance of other lands. There was no road open except the sea.
Opposite Norway, across the North Sea, beckoned the English coast, many of its ports peopled by descendants of Norwegian settlers.
The Norwegian skipper found the route to England more direct, and his reception more friendly than if he ventured farther south to the alien-tongued ports of the Continent.
In England the Norwegians could find all they desired. The leading staple which they brought from England was wheat. The very word flUr in Old Norwegian is from the English.
Only simpler and coarser stuffs were manufactured in England itself, the finer weaves being importa- tions from Flanders and France, whither England sent its raw wool.
England acted as the middleman in the shipment also of laige quantities of French wine to Norway. Of first importance was fish.
In the middle ages, when fast-days were more religiously observed than now, fish was a prime necessity. In the waters oflF the western coast of Norway there were cod enough to be dried into stockfish for a centiuy of Fridays in all Europe, and the Norwegians, from the earliest times, availed themselves of this source of wealth.
They dried the fish in the wind, and sent them over the seas to England, whence they were distributed near and far, even to the most inaccessible inland dis- tricts of the Continent.
So important were their fisheries to the Norwegians that on one occasion they obtained a special dispensation from the Pope to fish on the Sabbath.
Lmnber, which in later times has become one of Norway's chief articles of export, did not figure significantly in her foreign trade before the fourteenth century; England and France were not yet deforested.
Icelandic wool must also have been a marketable conmiodity then as now. And fish was not Norway's only staple of trade. Hunting hawks and falcons came from the North, and furs of all kinds.
Though the document is not historical, the list is a representative cargo from Norway. In the century alter the Norman Conquest the chief English port of entry for Norwegian ships was the old Scandinavian settlement of Grimsby in Lincolnshire, near the mouth of the Humber, where Norwegians were required to pay a certain stipulated toll in the time of Henry I and Henry H.
They held their course to Grimsby, where he met "a great number of people from Norway, the Orkneys, Scotland and the Sudreys," including Harald Gilli, in disguise, who subsequently became king of Nor- way.
From Grimsby, Kali sailed back to Bergen in Norway, and recited a poem about his English experiences: Unpleasantly we have been wading In the mud of a weary five weeks.
Dirt we had indeed in plenty. While we lay in Grimsby harbour; But now on the moor of sea-guUs Ride we o'er the crests of billows.
Gaily as the elk of bowsprits Eastward ploughs its way to Bergen. The young Norwegian found more than mud at Grimsby: In the thirteenth and fourteenth cen- turies King's Lynn took the place of Grimsby as the favorite rendezvous of Norwegian ships.
This was no doubt also the case on the west coast at Bristol frequented by the Norwegians of Dublin. The blood of Bristol Norse- men flowed still in the veins of the seamen who ventured wifh Cabot to the re-discovery of North America.
In Norway, one town — Bergen — has, since its foundation in the eleventh century, almost mo- nopolized the trade vdth England.
There were other ports which maintained direct sailings to England: Nidaros, otherwise known as Trondhjem, in the North; Stavanger and Tdnsberg, south of Bergen; and Oslo on the present site of Chris- tiania: Here fishermen from the Lofoten islands, from Shetland and the Faeroes and far-away Ice- land, brought their herring for distribution to England and the Continent.
To Bergen first came the skins of the Greenland polar bear, and the Ice- landic white falcons, which were especially prized by royal huntsmen in the middle ages.
A late mediaeval tradition at Bergen asserted that the English secured their privileges at the very outset, when Kmg Olaf the Peaceful founded the city.
It was the English trade more than any- thing else which made Bergen in the middle ages the largest city in Norway.
An event which hap- pened in shows how welcome the English merchants were. At that time King Sverrir was at Bergen, and had some trouble vdth drunken- ness in his army, caused by German Rhenish?
Shortly afterward, the king made a public address in which he referred to the strangers who sought Bergen from across the seas. He thanked first of all "the Englishmen, who come here bring- ing wheat and honey, flour and cloth.
But the Grer- mans and their wine he forbade the land. This was of great significance, for it meant that the Norwegian court in the most direct manner pos- sible was exposed to the continual stream of influ- ences which poured into Bergen across the North Sea from England.
English tutelage of the king and court of Nor- way dated from a time even before Bergen was a city. On Olaf's fall, Norway and England were for a few years under one united government, that of Cnut the Great.
He asserted his claim to the English crown, but left it to his successor Harald HartSrdtSi to fight for it and to fall at Stamford Bridge in A few years after the Conquest, he sent out from Grimsby the first embassy from the Norman court of England to Norway, a precursor of many others during the reigns of his successors.
This delegation obtained from King Olaf the Peaceful the friendship they sought. His successor, Magnus Bare- legs — so called because he affected the kilts of the Scottish Highlander — was of a more warlike nature.
He made three expeditions to Great Britain. On the first, in , he sub- dued the rebellious Orkneys and Hebrides, and secured from Malcolm, king of Scotland, a formal cession of the Western Isles.
In he crossed the North Sea for the last time. He married his son to an Irish princess, and fought in Ireland several times, being slain there at last in The terror of his visitations is remembered to this day in the fairy tales of the West Highlands.
After the time of Magnus, raid- ers from the Orkneys, harrying the Scottish coast, occasionally reached English territory, but the battle between the Norwegians and the Normans in Anglesea Sound, in , was the last Scandina- vian attack upon Engknd.
In Sigurd, with sixty ships and ten thousand men, set out for the crusades, and spent the winter in England as the guest of Henry I.
An Icelandic poet, Einar Skiilason, thus celebrated the occasion in song: The storm he boldly braves.
To England's coast he urges; And there he stays the winter o'er: More gallant king ne'er trod that shore. According to Norwegian law every man who was descended on the male side from Harald Fairhair had an equal right, whether his line was legitimate or illegitimate; and there were many hardy enough to prove their birthright by the ordeal of bearing a hot iron.
The turmoil of the period did not, however, cut oflF Norway from England. It was in these times that Geoffrey of Monmouth, in his History of the Kings of Britain , showed the interest Norway had for English- men, by narrating the avowed conquests of Norway in remote times by Arthur and other mythical Eng- lish kings, symbolizing, at the same time, the Nor- man dream of empire in the North.
During the reign of Henry 11 , envoys laden with gifts frequently crossed the seas between Henry and the ever-changing sovereigns of Norway.
Not even excommunication kept Sverrir from enjoying the inherited friendship of the English crown. King and archbishop in England were asked to take sides in Norway's civil strife.
This did not deter King John from espousing his cause. One of Sverrir's most loyal sup- porters in his own household was an English clerk named Martin, who, as his chaplain, virtually per- formed the functions of a chancellor.
It may be that John had received substantial help from Norway in those days when he most needed aid in his wars wiih France, the Pope, and the barons.
Significant, at any rate, is the circum- stance that the crown of Norway, in John's time, actually possessed a fief in England.
The forty-six years of his reign fell within the reign of Henry m in England If the two monarchs had one quality in common, it was their fondness for foreigners, a circumstance fortunate for their lifelong correspondence and the commer- cial amity that developed between their subjects.
The first half ended in , when the last rebellion was put down and Sktili, H4kon's father-in-law fell, the last rival claimant to the throne.
During this period Hdkon devoted himself to unifying his realm, to promoting architecture and literature, and to training his people in the civilization of Norman England.
The cordial relations between England and Norway blossomed into an intimacy never realized before. In the first he proposes that the friendship which existed between their predeces- sors be continued; he is sending falcons to Henry, and promises more when his men come from Ice- land with birds; he asks protection for Norwegian merchants, and reminds Henry of a piece of land that was to be allotted him in England.
In the third letter he writes that he is now sending Henry the gerfalcons from Iceland, three white ones and ten gray, of the sort that Henry's father and ancestors prized more than gold and silver, and trusts that Henry, too, will be pleased with them; he is sending also walrus tusks and elks' antlers, in the hope that the friendship between the two kings will continue.
Hardly a year passes in this decade without the record of a mission from Hdkon to the court at London. In a member of the Norwegian royal family visited England, while the abbot of a Norwegian monastery came as am- bassador.
In the same year H4kon made Henry the handsome present of a live elk. It was long before the time when resident ministers became a custom in the diplomatic practice of nations.
Each mission was a special one; envoys crossed the sea, delivered their letters, negotiated their business, and returned again. And yet, even in this early period, there were few months when Norway did not have her representative in London.
Some- times the same minister served for several years, coming to England in the autumn, spending the winter there, and returning by fair winds in the spring, laden with presents and impressed by the glitter of Anglo-Norman life.
One of these was the growing commerce between the two countries. In the meantime English ships had been lying at anchor in the har- bor beneath the castle, and their decks were visited by curious Norwegians, examming the swords and inlaid tables, the breast-pins and trinkets and em- broidered girdles, which the strangers had with them for barter.
When the Englishman Matthew Paris presented his papers to King H4kon, he counted two hundred ships in the bay of Bergen. Across the sea at Lynn and the neighboring ports there were Norwegian sails in plenty.
Two days later another letter permitted five more Bergen ships at Lynn to purchase grain and retxu-n home. The crown viewed the Norwegian trade with especial favor.
By his genial statecraft he raised Norway to a place among the world powers which it has never occupied either before or after. The emperor Frederick 11 was pleased to keep up with him an intermittent ex- change of letters and gifts.
In the Russian grand-duke, Alexan- der Newsky, applied for the hand of Hdkon's daughter, Christina, for his son, but negotiations were broken off by the Tartar invasion.
To Byzantium and the East Hdkon's praises were carried by Norwegian crusaders, and in he went so far as to send a gift of falcons to the Soldan of Tunis.
Well might his biographer write in a fine burst of patriotism: O gatherer of many praises. Costly gifts fall far and wide Without stint from thy good pleasure.
Thy gracious boons grace all the world. He sought for a marriage between Beatrice, daughter of Henry m, and his eldest surviving son. Her father replied courteously, in , that other pro- vision had bleen made for her, imfortunately, by the king of France, but begged that their alliance might continue.
Magnus married a Danish prin- cess two years later. Offi- cials went black and forth continually. In , Harald, king of the Sudreys, who had recently been knighted by Henry EQ, was summoned to Norway, where Hdkon gave him his daughter Cecilia in marriage , but they were lost at sea on the voyage home.
In Alexander DI took matters into his own hands, and began hostilities. How far-reaching were his ambitions may be judged by the fact that theNorse Ostmen of the Irish coast towns had urged him to come to deliver Ireland from English rule, and the Irish Annals of Loch CS for the year assert that "Ebhdhonn, king of Lochlann, died in Innsi-Orc, on the way whilst coming to Erinn.
Henry DI wrote Magnus that he sorrowedfor his father" as a special friend. In a treaty was concluded at Winchester between Magnus and Henry in view of the wrongs and insults done the people of each country by citizens of the other.
As chivalric ideas took root in Norwegian society, it became less consistent with a noble- man's dignity to engage in trade.
He abandoned the tiller and consigned his foreign bartering to professionals of the burgher class.
The fruition of Norman and English ideals is seen in the reforms which won Magnus his sur- name of Lawmender. His court law, the ffirtS- skrdy was an imitation of Norman customs.
The old lawmaking power of the Thing was abrogated, and the king and his coimcil were given the right to make and repeal laws. The Royal Council, patterned after the corresponding English insti- tution, consisted of the chancellor, the earls, and the liegemen.
Moreover, the title of lendr matJr was abolished for that of baron. Erik, son of Magnus , was but twelve years of age when he came to the throne.
Margaret died in , but despite their ex- treme youth, a daughter also named Margaret survived her. At least such is the authentic and accepted record of history.
This little girl drew not only Scotland and Norway but England also, for a time, into a net of diplomatic intrigue. For in the Scottish heir died, and the infant Mar- garet was declared successor to the throne, which she inherited on the death of Alexander two years later.
About this time Edward I showed his friend- ship to Erik by lending him two thousand marks through a Lucca banking house, an advance on the annual payments due from Scotland, long in arrears.
Seeing a chance to cement England and Scotland, King Edward in concluded arrangements to marry his son Prince Edward to the little Maid of Norway.
Edward sent a ship and retinue to Nor- way to bring her over, but the princess sailed for Scotland in another vessel. Like so many others, she died en route in the Orkneys, about Septem- ber 26, , having been for four and a half years queen of Scotland, a land which she never saw.
Thus were frustrated the dreams of Erik and of Edward, and the union of Great Britain was post- poned another three hundred years. During the disputes over the Scottish succession which fol- lowed, Erik presented his own claims to the crown as his daughter's heir according to the Norse law.
This alliance proved of but slight political advantage; Isabella's only child was a daughter, and she lived a long un- eventful life in Norway, widowed for more than half a century, until her death in The history of Anglo-Norwegian relations after the fiasco of may be concluded briefly.
Diplo- matic estrangement followed. Norway turned to France. Doubtless the Bruce family helped to ally Erik against Edward.
In , at Paris, Erik's kinsman and secretary, Audun Hugleiksson, concluded a treaty with Philip the Fair of France against England, and received six thousand marks to equip a Norwegian fleet.
Alter he ascended the throne as H4kon V , he seems to have had Bbilip the Fair as his model in internal government. The height of French political influence is marked by the ten years in the middle of the fourteenth century when Jean de Guilbert of Narbonne so- journed in the North.
About we find Norwegians trading between Flanders and Lynn. In they had their own "street" in Bruges, and in the same year Flanders and Norway made their first recorded treaty.
Meanwhile Norwegian trade had been passing from English into German hands. H4kon V had married a North German princess, Eufemia of Amstein, and in his foreign policy preferred the Hansa merchants to the English.
True, there was some trade with England for a quarter of a cen- tury after , not as formerly in the hands of courtiers and clerics, but due to the initiative of the townsfolk — a growing commercial enterprise nipped all too early in the bud.
Bergen had in those days its guild of "England Farers," and Lynn in turn had a guild of St. WiUiam, composed entirely of traffickers with "North Bern" Ber- gen.
Customs receipts for several English ports. But quarrels were many. Political estrangement between courts was accompanied by bitterness and bloodshed between merchants.
HI feeling came to a head in , when some English fishermen off the Norwegian coast killed a tax-collector and two other men of importance. This was followed by wholesale arrests and reprisals upon Englishmen in Norway.
Alter English and Norwegian mer- chants almost ceased to cross the North Sea. Henceforth Norwegian fish came to England in Hanseatic bottoms.
For more than two centuries the trade of Norway was under the control of the German free cities. Traffic with France was almost non-existent.
During the twelfth century there seems to have been some trade with Cologne by way of Utrecht and Deventer.
In the Ltlbeckers were allowed to winter in Bergen, and not tiU fifty years later did they establish their supremapy there.
What was true of trade was true also of foreign policy. The conclusion follows that Magnus Law- mender did not regard the commerce with those countries as of much consequence.
Thus late did England still eclipse all other competitors in the markets and the court of Norway. Another fact of considerable significance for the study of cultural relations between England and Norway is the social standing of many of the men who carried on the commerce.
His father was probably a Scandinavian settler in England, for -elf is not an English but a Northern termination. His son Robert, therefore, must have had the advantages of learning Norwegian in his home and of having a strong patanal backing.
We first hear of him in the year , when King John orders the bailiff of Lynn to permit Robert son of Sunnolf to take a cargo of com to Norway; and for this privilege Robert presents the king with a pair of hawks.
In Robert twice re- ceives a license to take a cargo of com out of Etag- Icmd. In John writes from Pomfret to the mayor of Lynn directing him to take great care of certain gerfalcons from Norway till they can be sent for.
That the mayor of Lynn was no other than Robert appears from an undated deed of land, in which he is referred to as "major Lennae.
To this deed is attached by a twist of red and white silk, a seal of green wax, bearing the device of a spread eagle with two heads and the legend "Sigillum Roberti Filii Sun- nolfi.
The book is written in the form of a dialogue between father and son, and in the first part the profession of Merchant is discussed.
But it is of great moment whether a man be like those who are real merchants, or those who give themselves mer- chants' names and are only hucksters and frauds who buy and sell deceitfully.
Above all he must know the law. Languages also are necessary. Nevertheless, do not cease to cherish your native speech.
When you are in a market town, or wherever you are, be polite and agreeable; then you will secure the friend- ship of all good men. Join in the worship, repeating such psalms and prayers as you have learned.
When the services are over, go out to look after your business affairs. If you are unac- quainted with the traffic of the town, observe carefully how those who are reputed the best and most prominent merchants conduct their business.
You must also be careful to examine the wares that you buy before the purchase is finally made, to make sure that they are sound and flawless.
And whenever you make a pur- chase, call in a few trusty men to serve as witnesses as to how the bargain was made. You should keep occupied with your business till breakfast or, if necessity demands it, till midday; after that you should eat your meal.
Keep your table well provided and set with a white doth, dean victuals and good drinks. On returning to your lodgings, examine your wares, lest they suffer damage after coming into your hands.
If they are found to be injured and you are about to dispose of them, do not conceal the flaws from the purchaser: Also put a good price on your wares, though not too high, and yet very near what you see can be obtained; then you cannot be called a foister.
Duke Sktili several times took out a safe-conduct. Government officials, bishops, and abbots sailed in person as merchimtB, while the archbishop and even the king sent their own pri- vate ships on trading voyages to English ports.
Baron Bjami Erlings- son of B]ark5y, took back with him to Norway in a romance in Middle English, now lost, and had it translated into Norwegian.
At least five of his diplomatic visits to Great Britain are recorded, covering the three decades from to At the death of King Magnus in , Bjami was one of the most powerful men in Norway.
During the minority of Erik he engaged in a bitter struggle with the clergy to wrest from the church certain concessions given by Magnus, winning for the mild boy-king the undeserved nickname of Priest- hater.
In we find him in Norway signing a covenant with English delegates to surrender Guy, son of Simon de Montfort, who was supposed to have fled to Norway.
Bjami took the oaths in the king's name at Rox- burgh. In , after the death of the Scottish heir, Bjami and Vidkunn his brother, came to Edward I and renewed with him the trade treaty of The treaty was drawn up on July 20, at Carnarvon, where Edward then held court, and where his son, later Edward 11, had just been bom.
Perhaps even then Edward cherished the plan of marrying the boy to Margaret. On March 25, , after their return to Norway, Vidkunn wrote from Bergen a short and polite letter to King Ed- ward, thanking him for the hospitality that he and his brother had enjoyed.
The winter of , after the death of Alexander DI, was spent by Bjami in Scotland, attending to the Princess Margaret's interests and assuring her the crown.
In the excit- ing years that followed, though commissions crossed the North Sea continually, we do not hear of Bjami; perhaps he was needed at home.
In , however, we find Edward I granting him safe-conduct to come to England on the affairs of King Erik. Three years afterward Edward issued similar letters for a commission, headed by Bjami, which Erik intended to send to England.
On March 28, , at Kirk- wall in the Orkneys, Bjami signed a quittance to Robert Bruce for the yearly payment for and the five years previous.
This was Baron Bjami's last mission. After his return to Norway in this year, the venerable diplomat ended his days, in prosperous content, if may judge from his will long preserved in the Norse archives , which leaves rich presents to cloisters and churches, as well as many bequests to relatives and prominent Norwegians.
Of special interest to us is the follow- ing clause: And the analogy of Florence and Venice may be pressed still farther. The merchant princes of Florence who visited Byzantium had their eyes open to something more precious than barter.
Trade but cleared the way for the passage of Greek culture to Italy in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Greeks were invited to Italy to interpret their classics; Manuel Chrysoloras, a Byzantine of noble births sent by the Greek emperor first as a political envoy to Venice and Florence, was in- duced partly by Niccolo's agency to come again in to fill the Greek chair in the University of Florence.
Bjami Erlingsson is in some measure a parallel to Niccolo de' Niccoli. Crossing the sea as an envoy in , he took back with him an English manuscript and had it translated into Norse.
In poetry, romance, and history, in fresco and architecture, no less than in doctrine and debate, the clergy were the preservers of the old, the interpreters of the new, and the mission- aries of art from one land to another.
The oldest Irish texts are found, far from their homeland, in the monasteries of the Alps. In the North the' clergy served as conductors for the currents of thought that connected Scandinavia and the British Isles.
The earliest historical treatise pre- served in Scandinavia was written by an English priest Uving in Denmark. The first recorded trans- lation of a romance of chivalry into the Norse was the work of a monk.
In the abbeys of Iceland were written down many of the sagas of pagan times. The Scandinavians were slow to forswear the worship of Odin and Thor.
Two centuries elapsed after the vikings came in contact with Western Christendom before the public assemblies of Nor- way were ready, even at the point of Olaf Trygg- vason's sword, to adopt the Christian faith.
When William the Con- queror at Hastings reaffirmed papal Catholicism in England, the pagan gods were still being wor- shipped in Sweden at their temple of Uppsala.
But when the Northern peoples did at length ac- cept the new faith, they adopted it with singular unanimity.
Thus in the year , the Icelandic Althing legislated in favor of Christianity for the whole island. Long before the first missionary crossed the border, fragments of Christian thought penetrated to the North by means of returning raiders and traders.
In the poetry and architecture of pagan Scandinavia we must never be surprised to dis- cover Catholic influences. But it was the strange- ness of pious legend, the glamour of cross and THE CLERGY 76 candle, that impressed the rude Norseman, not the spirit of asceticism or of devotion, so foreign to his temperament.
A viking would allow himself to be baptized in every land he visited, not merely for diplomatic reasons, but also for the novelty of the experience. There is a story of a pirate who ob- jected to his baptismal robes, on one occasion, on the ground that he had always before been given spotless linen, but this time only a rag.
Centuries later, when the North was Christian, the glitter of the mass in Saint Sophia in Constantinople be- came, in the eyes of the Scandinavians, a greater attraction even than the wonders of Rome.
The first missionary to Scandinavia of whom we hear was the Anglo-Saxon Willibrod , who visited the Danish king and was well received, but returned without making converts.
Subse- quent missionary efforts in Sweden and Denmark emanating from Germany were spectacular rather than intimate. The abiding interpretation of Christian living was destined to come to these two countries, as well as to western Scandinavia, from England.
Yet this was not the ease. Except for one group of calendars from Lund, from the second half of the twelfth century, no strong influence of the shadow of Ans- gar or the crozier of Bremen upon Danish religious life or thought can be observed until the second half of the fourteenth century.
The steady stream of trade and conquest from Denmark to England, in the ninth, the tenth, and the first half of the eleventh century, rendered an Anglo-Saxon influence inevitable.
It is from insti- tutions and from the technical language of the Danish ritual that we must judge most, for the records give only occasionally the names of Anglo- Saxons and Anglo-Danes who labored as mission- aries in Denmark.
The Danes derived at least one church feast, Bolsmess, from the English. They mani- fested a great afiFection for Anglo-Saxon saints. Churches along the seacoast were named after the English patron of sailors, St.
To Saint Botulf were dedicated six Danish churches and one abbey. When King Svend built the cathe- dral at Rofikilde, he called an Englishman, Gode- baldy for its first bishop.
It was naturally in the reign of Cnut the Great , that the re- lations between the Danish and English churches became closest.
Adam of Bremen, writing half a century later, admits that Cnut brought many English bishops to Denmark. For a time it seemed likely that Denmark would come under the see of Canterbury.
The issue was raised when Cnut sent out to the see of Boskilde one Gerbrand, who had been consecrated by the archbishop of Canterbury Eventually, however, Cnut came to a complete reconciliation with the archbishop as to the latter's prerogative over Danish bishops, and Gerbrand was allowed to proceed on his way.
The bond thus established was not broken even after the Danish kings ceased to rule England. In the city of Odense, on the island of Fyn, midway between Jutland and Sjselland, the light of Eng- lish culture burned steadily for a century or more.
Oswald, and to these King Cnut the Saint added a shrine containing relics of the protomartyr of the English, St. In the presence of these remains.
King Cnut himself won martyrdom on the tenth of July, , when he, his brothers, and seventeen faithful retainers were slain at the altar by his rebellious subjects.
Al- though the revolt against Cnut was a popular one, yet within fifteen years after his death he was can- onized and became the patron saint of the Danish people.
This reversal of sentiment seems to have been brought about by the English clergy of Odense, to whom Cnut appeared not as oppressor but as martyr.
The earliest account of his death, an inscription on a metal plate at Odense, con- tained, in the list of courtiers who died in his de- fence, at least four Danish names appearing not in native Scandinavian spelling but changed ac- cording to the sound-laws by which Northern names were refashioned into Anglo-Saxon.
Obvi- ously the inscription was the work of an English- man. The same seems to have been the case with the fuller account of Cnut's death, written at the time of his elevation It is the earliest considerable piece of prose literature preserved to us from Scandinavia.
The last was the founder of Evesham Abbey in England, the mother house of Odense. The English king turned to the abbot of Evesham, and from that abbey were sent out twelve monks, probably in The new foundation at Odense was dedicated to Saint Cnut, and in its church his shrine was deposited.
An Evesham copybook preserves three letters relating to the Odense house. Two of them prescribe that the election of prior shall be confirmed by the mother monastery, and that deaths shall be re- ported from house to house, the names of deceased brothers being entered in the martyrology.
Cnut under date of July The earliest account of his passion before , like that of Saint Cnut the King, was written by an Englishman, one Robert of Ely.
After the middle of the century the Cistercian order spread rapidly in Denmark. Eskil, arch- bishop of Lund, who furthered the cause, was a personal friend of Bernard of Clairvaux d.
The English branch, however, con- tributed its share. The Benedictine monastery of Soro, on Sjselland, founded by the Hvides, the family of the great Absalon, was converted by him, in , into a Cistercian abbey.
It became the most influential of Cistercian foundations in Denmark. The second abbot, Simon, was an Englishman, and he presided over the house for twenty-three years, from until He was followed by an Englishman, Gaufred, abbot from till His will, witnessed by the English abbot, directs his secretary, Saxo, to return to SorO, two books that Absalon had lent him.
Here he could look out ui on that lake, fre- quented now by swans and surrounded by beech- woods, and walk in the paths beloved to this day by the boys of Sor5 School.
The cult of Thomas k Becket foimd immediate acceptance in Denmark. It will be remembered that Thomas was murdered in and canonized in In the accoimt of Becket's miracles written by William of Canterbury before the end of the century, we read of two miracles performed by the English saint in Denmark, namely the launching of a Slesvig merchant's ship, and the healing of a canon of Lund named Svend.
The cathedral of Lund contained two altars to Saint Thomas. There was also a guild of Samt Thomas in the city of Lund, and there were altars in the cathedrals of Ribe, Roskilde, and Aarhus.
Literary memorials are numerous. The rules of the Franciscan order, confirmed in , spread within a decade to England and Den- mark. Later the aichbiahop sent a clerks Jacob, to England to beg that Franciscans come to Denmark.
Mean- while Danish students woe continually meeting Englishmen in Paris. Throughout the thirteenth and the first haU of the fourteenth century it was the prevailing religious influence in the land.
The white-cowled vegetarians from Pr6montr6 came to Denmark direct from France, early in the twelfth century, within twenty years of the order's foundation.
A stream of French culture followed also the intro- duction of the Cistercian order. Danish missals, pontificals, and saints' lives bear witness to French origin.
From early in the eleventh century we hear of several English missionaries in Sweden, but our facts rest more upon tradition than upon docu- ments.
Olaf Tryggvason's court bishop, Sigfrid, went after Olaf's death to Denmark and thence to Sweden, dying at Veksj5.
His kinsman Osmund was also established in Sweden, declaring himself independent of the see of Bremen. He retired, however, to England, and died in Ely cloister between and Adam of Bremen mentions an English missionary named Wolfred.
Late in the century, the Swedish church secured a saint for its calendar, St. An- other Englishman, St. Eskil, was martyred for protesting against pagan sacrifice, on the site of Eskilstuna.
Thus Sweden's first saints were English bom. In an English legate from the Pope, Nicholas Break- speare, after establishing an archbishopric in Norway, went into Sweden to do the same.
But the Swedes and the GStar could not agree, so Breakspeare left the decision as to the location of the new pontifical see with the Archbishop of Limd, appointing him ''primate of Sweden.
There are no records of English monastic founda- tions in Sweden, as in Denmark and Norway. In S the Cistercian monastery of Alvastra was made mother to the abbey of Lysa in Norway, founded more than fifty years before by monks from Fountains.
Like Denmark, Sweden turned, in the twelfth and the following centuries, far more to France than to England. In time Swedish students in Paris became more numerous than Danish.
They had three, perhaps four, colleges. From the records of we can account for thirty-five students from Sweden as against nine Danes.
At the end of the fourteenth century, the Swedish church, like all the intellectual world of Scandinavia, drew more closely to Germany than to other coimtries.
Norway was christianized from England, and the English influ- ence remained predominant until after The terminology and peculiar institutions of the Nor- wegian church were borrowed from the Anglo- Saxon.
The church in Norway was established by kings educated in England, and by Anglo-Saxon bishops. Early missionary expeditions from Ger- many and Denmark were confined to some vague attempts along Christiania Fjord and the southern coast, and those from France to the establishment of one or two "daughters" of Pr6montr6.
After he became king, he sent to Eng- land for a bishop and other teachers, and made several ineffectual attempts to turn Norway from heathendom.
This task, however, was left for King Olaf Tryggvason , who employed coercive methods worthy of Mahomet. Olaf also had received Christian instruction in England, and an English bishop was with him in Norway.
The North was evidently ripe unto harvest, for Olaf could boast that in the five years of his reign he converted not Norway alone, but the Norse isles in the western seas — Shetland, the Orkneys, the Fseroes, and Iceland.
King Olaf Haraldsson c. Now there followed an instance of the phenomenon repeated, as we saw, in Denmark, at the end of the century.
A;n English bishop, Grimkell, disinterred the body, recorded its miracles, and pronounced Olaf a saint. In England, too, Olaf was well-known.
The sagas tdl of an English knight, who, when all other cures had failed, made the long pilgrimage to Olaf's shrine at Trondhjem.
In England there were fif- teen churches dedicated to St. Olaf, and several windows from the later middle ages are still pre- served in English churches, depicting the miracles of St.
He had a place also in Scottish and English ritual. The Cistercian order was carried over from Eng- land to Norway about Bishop Sigurd of Bergen was on a visit to Fountains Abbey at the time, and became so enthusiastic over the new rule of the Cistercians that he determined to establish a cloister in his own see.
Abbot Henry supplied him with monks from Fountains, who founded a monastery, St. The ruins of the cloister buildings, even today, suggest a flourishing institution, and we have every reason to believe that its abbots and monks played no small part in the interchange of thought and literature between England and Nor- way.
The same, to a somewhat less degree, is true of the second Cistercian monastery in Norway, another St. Mary's, on the island of HovedO, off the harbour of Christiania.
Hoved5 was the daughter of Kirkstead in Lincolnshire. Both Lysa and HovedO maintained their connection with England.
The first abbot of Lysa returned in his old age to Foun- tains, and the abbey remained under the immedi- ate personal supervision of Fountains until There is no reason to doubt that other Norwegian cloisters were founded by Englishmen.
At the middle of the twelfth century the Norwegian church, originally founded by English- men, was reorganized by an Englishman, under its own metropolitan see.
Since , the archbishop of Lund had been primate of the North. The new see of Nidaros Trondhjem , established by Breakspeare, embraced eleven bishoprics, five in Norway, two in Iceland, one each in Greenland, Sodor and Man, the Orkneys, and the Faeroes.
The fifth Norwegian bishopric was set up during Breakspeare's visit, with its seat at Hamar — the only inland diocese.
It is likely that Breakspeare himself laid the cor- nerstone of the cathedral. He promised to send artisans to construct the church, and these were, no doubt, his own countrymen, for the basilica raised at Hamar was of pure Anglo-Norman design.
The archbishop whom Breakspeare consecrated died in , and was succeeded by the mighty Eystein , the contemporary of Becket, Richard, and Baldwin at Canterbury.
Eystein is of the utmost importance to our 90 THE CLERGY study, not only because he spent three of the most important years of his life in England, but because he was the patron of Norwegian architecture and literature, and was himself an author.
Eystein and Becket were kindred spirits; in fact, they were friends. In a letter to the bishop of Meaux, Becket writes: Master Godfrey and Master Walter, messengers of our reverend brother, the Archbishop of Trondhjem, with the same kindness with which your grace has been wont to receive us and ours.
Eystein cre- ated a king, Magn,U 3, and asserted the prerogative of the church by making the crown of Norway subject to his own see.
But he met his match in the great soldier-demagogue. After a long and bitter struggle, Eystein and Magnus were decisively defeated in Then the arch- bishop took refuge in England.
Long before his exile in England, Eystein showed his study of English architecture in the erection of Trondhjem Cathedral, the most magnificent piece of stone masonry in Norway.
A church had been raised about by King Olaf the Peaceful to contain the shrine of St. But immediately after Eystein's return from Rome with the pallium of his office, in , he began to increase the structure to proportions worthy of a metropolitan see.
It is more than likely that Eystein visited England on his homeward journey and engaged the services of English architects and artisans.
At all events, the new Romanesque transept which he added to the older church, is patterned on Eng- lish models. Professor Dietrichson, '"shows no influ- ence from the south, but exclusively from Eng- land.
During this time we know his whereabouts only for the nine months that he lived at Bury St. Edmunds in the vacant residence of the late abbot.
Eystein's coming was regarded by the English clerics and monkish chroniclers as an event in history. Roger of Hoveden and Benedict of Peterborough relate that, "unwilling to subject himself to Sverrir the Priest, he left his see and came to England, and excommunicated Sverrir.
The king, contrite for Becket's death, seems to have be- come especially gracious to visiting archbishops, and granted Eystein's request.
At that time the abbacy at Bury St. Edmunds had been vacant for eight months. Evidently he thought the abbot's house an excellent place to lodge the nation's guest, for on the ninth of August, twelve days after Henry's landing, Eystein took up his resi- dence in the vacant mansion, receiving ten shil- lings a day by order of the king.
Fortunately, the sojourn of the Norwegian arch- bishop at Bury is recorded by that chatty Boswell of the twelfth century, Jocelin of Brakelond, a monk of the great abbey.
Jocelin mentions Ey- stein in the same breath in which he narrates the gossip of the monks during the vacancy. Olafy a copy of which was preserved for cen- turies at Fountains.
On the following day, according to Jocelin, the convent received a letter from the king directing them to send to him one prior and twelve delegates with power to elect a new abbot.
Two days later the thirteen set forth. Now Eystein is not mentioned by Jocelin as a member of the cavalcade, but Jocelin does say that the Norwegian archbishiop ''was of con- siderable assistance in obtaining for us our free election, bearing witness of what was well, and publicly declaring before the king what he had seen and heard.
Where Eystein stayed dur- ing the remainder of his English visit, a year and four months, we have no inkling.
The king sailed for France early in March, and did not return until two years later. Possibly some of the churches dedi- cated to St.
He lived in retirement from politics until his death in , devoting his restless energies to revising the national law and to adding to Trond- hjem Cathedral.
The architectural style of Norway from until is defined as "Anglo-Norman. Though we have no record of Eystein's visiting the shrine of St.
Thomas, it is one of the places in England that he could hardly have avoided. Now just at the time of his English residence, the French architect, GuiUaume de Sens, was building the first Gothic structure raised in England, the eastern portion of Canterbury Cathedral.
Eystein's own choir and transepts were designed in the new style that he must have seen at Canterbury. This was only thirty years after the completion of the first Gothic church in!
France, and only nine years after the introduction of Gothic into England. The mes- sages of art were not slower to reach Norway in those days than in our own; only they came from England, while to-day they travel direct from France.
Gothic architecture flourished in Norway under Eystein's and Sverrir's successors. This portion of the cathedral, destroyed long since, is being reconstructed in the English tradition.
Norwegian sculpture, also, from the first half of the thirteenth century, shows either the hands of Englishmen or those of careful Norwegian students of British art.
This does not mean that the two churches became any more intimate in the thir- teenth century than they were in the twelfth. It is largely an accident due to the better preserva- tion of English records.
These documents rarely reveal to us the spiritual incentive to the voyage. Norwegian clerks are named in the English Rolls because they figure as merchants or diplomats; church business and private affairs demanded no mention.
For example, John Steel, whom we have noticed as securing in a license to come to England as a merchant, went, according to the saga, on a pilgrimage to Canterbury, and had deal- ings with the newly elected archbishop of Nidaros and other Norwegian priests in England.
At the same time the king often entrusted him with a despatch. Accordingly, his name is re- corded in the Rolk, but not his church errand.
During the thirteenth century the bishops of all five Norwegian dioceses were coming in person to England or sending members of their cathedral chapters.
The archbishops of Nidaros continued to enjoy the privilege given " the church of Nidaros, the archbishop and his successors, every year, THE CLERGY 97 whether fertile or not, to load one ship in England with com and provisions, without challenge or exaction, and to take it to Norway to his church.
In , after the commercial rupture, the men of Elavus Eilif Arnason , archbishop of Nidaros , obtained royal leave to trade in England for one year.
The Norwegian pontiffs went to Rome to receive the pallium, and, until , the English route was the favorite one to the south.
Archbishop Guttorm chose this route in , securing from King John a pass for himself and his retinue, both coming and returning.
Peter of Housesteads , the next archbishop, returned by way of England, and spent some time there during the summer of The sees of Hamar, Oslo, and Stavanger also main- tained relations with England.
For Bergen the English connection was of an intimate character. We have heard how Bishop Sigurd of Bergen studied at Fountiains in the middle of the twelfth century.
From to Bergen actually had a bishop of English blood, Martin, formerly chaplain to King Sverrir. The high clerics of Bergen often served as am- bassadors to the London court, spending the winter well-fed at the capital, and returning with presents to their king.
Li one of the canons of Bergen was studying in England, and another was just setting out on a Canterbury pilgrimage.
The Norwegian monasteries founded by English monks continued their English affiliations. Cnut's foundation at Nidarholm had business relations with the Caursin bankers in London in the first half of the thirteenth century.
When these be- came seriously entangled, the famous Matthew Paris of St. Albans was sent in to straighten them out. As for Hoved6 Abbey, its ships are several times mentioned in the English Rolls from the first half of the century.
Li this case, at any rate, an English abbey continued intimate relations with her off- spring for at least a hundred years.
Even closer was the bond which joined Lysa to England. Be- ing near Bergen, it shared the English interests of that city. The original convent of Lysa, it will be remembered, consisted of Englishmen, and the Apglo-Norman names of many of the monks during the thirteenth century show that England continued to supply Lysa with Cistercians.
We may mention espe- cially Abbot Richard, who, in the seventies and eighties, acted with power-of-attomey, not for the Norwegian crown, but for Edward I of England.
The King's Mirror indicates that church digni- taries were in demand as ambassadors: The English Rolls mention at least sixteen clerical em- bassages from Norway between and 1S English clerics, in their turn, served as diplomats in Norway, sometimes in the employ of the Nor- wegian instead of the English king.
From 12S4 and we have English letters of protection given ''Richard of St. Albans, envoy of the King of Norway," and in King Henry presented him with a fine horse.
Disputes over the Hebri- des furnished occasion for sending church digni- taries from Scotland to Norway, and about , when Margaret, the Maid of Norway, was com- ing to rule Scotland, the clergy played important r61es.
English clerks, also, were employed as secre- taries by the Norwegian kings: The latter re- turned to England in , bearing letters of reconmiendation to King Edward.
We can only infer the presence of Norwegian students in English schools. The Rolls are, of course, silent on this score. If we had the lists of matriculations at Oxford and Cambridge for the thirteenth century, we should, no doubt, find many Norwegian names.
Thence he came to England, and was at Lincoln, and there he gat, moreover, great knowledge, and fraught with blessings both to himself and others.
And so when he came back to Iceland, he surpassed all other men in his courtliness and his learning, and in making of verse, and in book-lore.
This same letter mentions another canon who is setting out to perform his vow to St. Thomas k Becket became as popular in Norway as in Denmark.
The saga of Hraf n Svein- bjamarson, the Icelander , tells an amusing tale: Thomas the tusks for his help.Merlin's Magic Respins also contains an autoplay game mode, which will allow the reels to spin freely for a moment. The game- play in the online casino can bring essential winnings, as well as, loses. To find your fortune in the magic land, look for Sword of Destiny gaming slot at SlotsUp. Weiterhin haben Betroffene gem. You can change your display name and avatar at any time. Wer der englischen Sprache mächtig ist, kann den Kundendienst aber ohne Probleme nutzen. Wer Slots liebt, der möchte natürlich auch gern mal gewinnen. The site has a fancy theme which is made up of gold and black with diamond gems around the website. Madame Monarch loves her forest and all the butterflies that live there, but the problem is she's always losing the butterflies. Page 1 Page 2. There are some high bets to place on this so new players beware and get to know the game with a little free demo play first.